In practice, transcriptions based on both Cantonese and Mandarin pronunciations have been used.
In Singapore, transcription standards are established by the Translation Standardisation Committee for the Chinese Media.
Despite the importance of Cantonese and other southern coastal varieties of Chinese to foreign contact during the 19th century (as seen, for instance, in the number of Cantonese loanwords in English), the northern capital dialect has been formally sanctioned within the country for centuries.
This status continued under the Republic, which retained the importance of the "National Language" ( in 5 tones, so homophones abound and most non Han words have multiple possible transcriptions.
Qianlong identified the Solon language with the Khitan, the Manchu language with the Jurchen, and the Mongolian language with the Mongolian.