Introduction Prehistoric Sculpture Sculpture of Classical Antiquity (c.1100-100 BCE) Celtic Metal Sculpture (400-100 BCE) Roman Sculpture (c.200 BCE - c.200 CE) Byzantine Sculpture (330-1450 CE) Sculpture During The Dark Ages (c.500-800) Romanesque Sculpture (c.800-1200) Gothic Sculpture (c.1150-1300) Italian Renaissance Sculpture (c.1400-1600) Baroque Sculpture (c.1600-1700) Rococo Sculpture (c.1700-1789) Neoclassical Sculpture (Flourished c.1790-1830) 19th Century Sculpture 20th Century Sculpture: The Advent of Modernism Post-War Sculpture (1945-70) Postmodernist Contemporary Sculpture Any chronological account of the origins and evolution of three-dimensional art should properly occupy several volumes, if not a whole library of books.
Neolithic art is noted above all for its pottery, but it also featured free standing sculpture and bronze statuettes - in particular from the Indus Valley Civilization, the North Caucasus and pre-Columbian art in the Americas.
The most spectacular form of Neolithic art was Egyptian pyramid architecture whose burial chambers led to an increased demand for various types of reliefs as well as portable statues and statuettes.
From the very earliest tool-cultures of the Paleolithic era, sculptural progress has been marked by the discovery of new materials and equipment.
Amazingly, by the birth of Christ, most of the sculptor's traditional methods and techniques had already been discovered, including bronzework and the refined goldsmithery practised by nomadic tribes.
For other similar forms of carving, see: Stone Sculpture. If these objects are pre-sculptural forms, the earliest prehistoric sculpture proper emerged around 35,000 BCE in the form of carvings of animals, birds, and therianthropic figures, made during the Lower Perigordian/Aurignacian Period and discovered in the caves of Vogelherd, Hohle Fels, and Hohlenstein-Stadel, in the Swabian Jura, Germany.